Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition which is seen during the reproductive phase of a women due to imblanace of the hormones. Women with PCOS may have infrequent or prolonged menstrual periods or excess male hormone (androgen) levels. The ovaries may develop numerous small collections of fluid (follicles) and fail to regularly release eggs.
The infertility rate with polycystic ovaries is very high. these women usually will have difficulty getting pregnant - and usually require treatment to improve chances for pregnancy. Some women with polycystic ovary syndrome will ovulate (release a mature egg) occasionally - others do not ever ovulate.
Signs and symptoms of PCOS include irregular or no menstrual periods, heavy periods, excess body and facial hair, acne, pelvic pain, difficulty getting pregnant, and patches of thick, darker, velvety skin.
Endometriosis is an often painful disorder in which tissue that normally lines the inside of your uterus — the endometrium — grows outside your uterus. Endometriosis most commonly involves your ovaries, fallopian tubes and the tissue lining your pelvis. Rarely, endometrial tissue may spread beyond pelvic organs.
With endometriosis, displaced endometrial tissue continues to act as it normally would — it thickens, breaks down and bleeds with each menstrual cycle. Because this displaced tissue has no way to exit your body, it becomes trapped. When endometriosis involves the ovaries, cysts called endometriomas may form. Surrounding tissue can become irritated, eventually developing scar tissue and adhesions — abnormal bands of fibrous tissue that can cause pelvic tissues and organs to stick to each other.
Endometriosis can cause pain, especially during your period. Fertility problems also may develop. Common signs and symptoms of endometriosis may include painful period, pain with intercourse, pain with bowel movements or urination, excessive bleeding and infertility.
Fallopian tube obstruction
Fallopian tube obstruction is a major cause of female infertility. Blocked fallopian tubes are unable to let the ovum and the sperm converge, thus making fertilization impossible.
Fallopian tubes are female reproductive organs that connect the ovaries and the uterus. Every month during ovulation, which occurs roughly in the middle of a menstrual cycle, the fallopian tubes carry an egg from an ovary to the uterus. Conception also happens in the fallopian tube. If an egg is fertilized by sperm, it moves through the tube to the uterus for implantation.
If a fallopian tube is blocked, the passage for sperm to get to the eggs, as well as the path back to the uterus for the fertilized egg, is blocked. Common reasons for blocked fallopian tubes include scar tissue, infection, and pelvic adhesions.
Having irregular periods, no periods, or abnormal bleeding often indicates that you aren't ovulating, a condition known clinically as anovulation. It is caused due to imbalance in the hormones.